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How to Choose a Filtered Water Bottle :8 Things You Need to Know?

How to choose filtered water bottles :8 things you need to know

Table of Contents

History of Straw Water Filter Bottle

It’s a long and sad story, In 1996, a very caring and wealthy businessman found his grandson had some tough questions when he went on a camping trip(These problems can be very challenging for outdoor adventurers or backpackers).So the elder decided to transform his company into one focused on improving the lives of Africans, to eradicate guinea worm, one of the most feared diseases that will remain in existence well into the 21st century.


But with the deepening of research and exploration, Engineers have discovered that the causes of the water problem overlap like Matryoshka dolls. If the unfortunate person drinks water contaminated with fleas and larvae, the worms will mature、 reproduce, and eventually emerge from the skin. The result is infection and sometimes amputation, which is very painful(There was no vaccine or drug to treat the disease).


Thus was born the first outdoor water bottle.The old man fitted each straw water filter bottle with metal mesh to filter out relatively large fleas. Because of this invention, the number of cases of guinea worm fell from 3.5 million in 1986 to 25 in 1997.

How to Filter Water?

Physical Filtration

  • Osmotic purification: Maybe you’ve seen 《Man vs Wild》, Bear Grylls uses sand and rocks to filter water contaminated with bird droppings on an island where water is scarce, and then drinks it(It’s a terrible feeling).Feature: It can only filter some relatively large molecular harmful substances(There are requirements for water sources).
  • Filtration purification: When there are foreign bodies, sediments or diseases, insects, or heavy metals in the water, but the surrounding environment can not use the osmotic filtration method, pore filtration can be used(This is similar to osmotic filtration).Feature: The pore size and filtration grade can be adjusted according to the molecular size of the material to be filtered.

Chemical Filtration

  • Chemical treatment: It belongs to water treatment fungicides (e.g. chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, bleaching powder, ozone, chloramines). Common chemical water treatment and purification medicines such as bactericidal drops and tablets contain chlorine dioxide. Feature: Given enough time, chlorine dioxide can kill bacteria, protozoa, and viruses.
  • Iodine is another chemical water treatment available, but it does not kill all protozoa(Such as Cryptosporidium).


  • Burning water: It is one of the most conventional bactericidal purification methods, killing bacteria, protozoa, and viruses.Feature: This is probably the best option for camping in freezing conditions.
  • To use this method, please boil water at an altitude below 5000m for more than 1min or at an altitude above 5000m for more than 3 minutes.Please be sure to carry excess fuel.

Ultraviolet Rays

  • Ultraviolet rays:Ultraviolet disinfection is the use of ultraviolet light to destroy the DNA/RNA of bacteria, protozoa, and viruses so that they cannot reproduce and kill them directly.
  • Water needs to be pretreated before sterilization(It is important to filter out the larger particles).Uv purifiers rely primarily on batteries so outdoor enthusiasts or backpackers should take this into account.

Carbon Adsorption Filtration

Activated carbon filters are mainly completed through carbon beds.Activated carbon particles have a lot of micropores and a huge specific surface area at the same time has a strong adsorption capacity.surface oxygen-containing functional groups can adsorb some organic matter.More importantly, activated carbon can further remove the residual organic matter and floating matter in the water, and reduce the residual chlorine content in the water.

What Kinds of Water Purifier Bottle Are on the Market at Present?

According to the Principle of Division

  • Medicament purifier bottle:Place the chemical directly into the water bottle(Water purification tablets or drops).
  • Carbon filter bottle:Put the carbon package and straw into the water bottle after the combination of technology.Easy to take out and replace.
  • Water bottle with filter:The filter membrane with different pore size is processed into one by cross-flow type or DC process + sintered activated carbon filter + multi-layer PP filter cotton + screen in accordance with the filtration sequence and placed in the water bottle.Easy to take out and replace.

According to the Design Division

  • Pressure type:Extruded filters are made of hollow fiber membranes.Water is squeezed through a water filter straw into a clean bottle, cooker ,or directly into the mouth.
  • Water pump:Pump filters use hand pumps to force water through hollow or fiberglass filters.The pump is different from other filtration systems in that it requires you to stay at the water source for the duration of the filtration and be relatively heavy.
  • Hydrocone type:Straw filters are made of hollow fiber membranes and come with water bottles or water bags.It is worth noting that the filter element needs to be replaced.

According to the Use of Division

  • Personal use:This kind of water filter straw or water purifier bottle is generally small in size and lightweight to carry.It provides about 396 gallons of filtered water, equivalent to 3,000 bottles of water.
  • Families/Groups:Filter straws usually come with a large water bag or water bottle or a pressure water bottle.It can provide filtration water of about 3L-6L.

What Is in a Water Filter and How Does a Water Bottle Filter Work?

hollow fiber filter membrane

Many friends are very worried about whether the water filter bottle is as effective as described: it can filter parasites, pests, heavy metals, chlorine, and some other pathogenic substances.


Therefore, today I will explain from membrane material to filtration process to experimental data:How dirty water from rivers, lakes, rivers, etc. goes through the filtration (i.e., infiltration) process to become clean and safe drinking water.

Filtration System

In the principle stage, it is introduced that filtration is to use the pore size of membrane material to intercept harmful substances through multi-level filtration.We first need to understand the filter system (filter layer).

What Are the Current Fltering Levels?

Filtering is a continuous process and follows from large to small. Each layer of filtration needs to be able to steadily remove the target and protect the next layer of filtration. Make the effluent water quality meet the design requirements and ensure the total filtration amount.


According to statistics on some shopping websites, At present, the main drinking water treatment systems are unipolar filtration, double-stage filtration, three-stage filtration, four-stage filtration, five-stage filtration, and five-stage filtration (even 10-stage).


  • Single-stage filter:1μm/5μm PP cotton coated coconut shell granular activated carbon. Mainly used for filtering more than 5μm floating matter and particle material, adsorption of water heterochromatic odor, residual chlorine in water, improve the taste of water. Only suitable for a high-quality drinking water source.
  • 2-stage filtration:1μm/5 μMPP cotton +5μm CTO pressed stick activated carbon. It is mainly used for 5μm floating matter and granule material, clarifying water source, removing part of organic or inorganic impurities, effectively adsorbing residual chlorine in water, and improving the taste of water. Suitable for high-quality drinking water, tastes better than single-stage filtration.
  • 3-stage filtration:5μmPP + activated carbon + fiber filter element was used to remove more than 5μm floating matter and particles in water. Adapt to good water quality from the water source.The treated water reaches《 CJ94-1999 Standard for Drinking Water Quality》.
  • 4-stage filtration:Filtration accuracy of 30-50μm stainless steel mesh screen + accuracy of 0.1-50μm sintered activated carbon filter + accuracy of 0.1-10μm microfiltration membrane + accuracy of 0.01μm ultrafiltration. It filters out bacteria, parasites, and microplastics, reduces turbidity and heavy metals, absorbs chlorine, volatile organic compounds, and odors, and improves taste. It is used for most outdoor water sources
  • 5-stage filtration and above filtration:With the development of technology, the highest filtering level is 10 or more.But it all boils down to ultrafiltration in the end(PP cotton + carbon dioxide + resin + anti-oxidation filter + ultrafiltration film).


Filter finenessμm

Filter material

316 stainless steel mesh screen


Large fleas, sand, silt, rust, hair, fly ash and other large particulate matter

PP cotton filter material


Red worms, pollen, protozoa (flagellates, sporozoites, ciliates) and other organisms, moss, large particulate matter

Sintered activated carbon filter material


With micropore filtration and micropore adsorption function, ultrafiltration + granular activated carbon function.It can filter out large particulate matter and algae; Adsorption carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and other chemical substances.

MF microfiltration


Some bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella earthy, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, amoeba/amoeba, Cryptosporidium, Giardia), algae, large particulate matter

UF ultrafiltration


Colloid, bacillus, virus, carbon black, heat source, heme, etc.

NF nanofiltration


Proteins, dyes, pesticides, high-value metal ions, etc

RO reverse osmosis


Metal ions, etc.

Note: The diameter of hair is about 0.02mm-0.12mm

Water Filter Replacement

Is the Effect Better with More Filter Layers

The misconception that the more layers, the better the filtering effect, has become an obstinate “truth” in the minds of many consumers. To cater to the consumption trend, the market has 10 grade and above water filter elements. However, this does not mean that the higher the level of the filtration system, the better the filtration effect, because the filtration effect ultimately depends on the membrane material, precision, and technology of the filter element.


Each layer of filtration needs to be able to steadily remove the target and protect the next layer of filtration. Too many filter stages may lead to high-pressure differential and some filter layers cannot be fully utilized.

Why to Use Hollow Fiber Filter Membrane?

The hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane is completely asymmetric. The membrane structure of the influent contact side is dense, but the membrane structure of the permeating liquid contact side is loose. The shape of the wedge (inverted flare) makes the filtration more accurate.


A hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane is easier to clean and maintain than other membranes.


Some use a cross-flow filtration process, and some use dead-end filtration (also known as full-flow filtration) process.


  • Cross-flow filtration:A portion of the contaminated water is discharged from the other end of the ultrafiltration membrane, thus keeping the contaminated layer at a thin level. The filtration performance of the membrane is improved, the flux of the membrane is kept stable, and the service life of the membrane is extended(for solid content higher than 0.5% is mostly used).
  • Dead end filtering (full stream filtering):The solvent, water molecules, and solutes smaller than the membrane pore all pass through the ultrafiltration membrane, and the particles larger than the membrane pores are intercepted. The trapped particles usually accumulate on the membrane surface. As time goes by, the particles trapped on the membrane surface increase continuously, increasing filtration resistance, the decrease water production, and the increase of pressure. At this time, it is necessary to stop using and clean the contaminated layer on the membrane surface or replace the membrane(usually less than 0.1% solid content).

The operation mode is divided into internal pressure type and external pressure type: the concentration of suspended matter in the water of external pressure type is larger than that of the internal pressure type.

Hollow Fiber Filter Membrane Material and Characteristics


Aperture sizeμm



PES membrane filter


Hydrophilic, high flow rate, low dissolution, no adsorption of protein and extract,

Chemical,inspection, pharmaceutical and bactericidal filtration,water-based and chemical filtration

PTFE membrane filter


The most extensive chemical compatibility, all organic solution filtration (especially other filter membrane can not tolerate the strong solvent filtration) high flow, high precision

Liquid filtration and purification, sewage filtration

Dust filter, air filter, organic solvent filter, respirator, breathable film

Organic gas filtration, organic droplet recovery from industrial tail gas, breathable film

PVDF membrane filter


Flame retardant, low smoke, high wear resistance, mold resistance, high permeability resistance to gases and liquids

Sewage, tap water, mineral water, direct drinking water, beverage, swimming pool, seawater desalination and other pretreatment, remove macromolecules, bacteria, sediment and other impurities

Separator applications in fuel cells and lithium-ion polymer batteries

PP membrane filter


Good thermal stability, good chemical compatibility in aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and effective binding of proteins, DNA and RNA

Aqueous and organic solution filtration, HIGH performance liquid chromatography sample filtration, gas separation filtration, gas filtration is preferred

Suitable for medical, chemical, food and beverage


Is the Filtration Accuracy the Smaller the Better?

What is the filtration accuracy and what is the main role

  • filter fineness:the maximum particle size allowed to pass through the filter when the solution containing impurities passes through the filter membrane, and the removal efficiency reaches the standard value.
  • bore diameter: refers to the shape and size of the orifice in a porous solid. Holes are so irregular that they are usually regarded as circular and the size of the hole is indicated by its radius. The pore size distribution is often related to the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the activity of the catalyst.
  • Aperture is not exactly equivalent to filtration accuracy. But the smaller the pore size, the higher the filtration accuracy.

Why not filter precision the smaller the better

The filtration accuracy of outdoor water filter bottles or pipettes available on the market ranges from 0.01-5μm.


It is worth noting that the filter fineness is not the smaller the better. The most suitable precision is 0.1μm.Because the filter element below 0.1μm micron is easy to block, resulting in water difficulty and water effort. At the same time, if the precision is too small, the filtration efficiency will be reduced and the filtration speed will be slow.


Found under a microscope:0.1μm water filter straw replacement can remove 99.9999% bacteria, parasites and microplastics, and reduce turbidity and heavy metals, adsorption chlorine, volatile organic compounds, odor, slightly improve the taste (but not suitable for seawater).

Do Water Purifier Bottle Really Filter Out Parasites

What are the main diseases and insects harmful to a human body in water pollution

Water pollution is a growing problem and any water source can contain harmful waterborne pathogens.

When you are outdoors or in a beautiful place.There are mountains and running water, the water looks crystal clear, blue waves rippling.But it could also have been contaminated (chemical/fertilizer/sewage/plastic pollution, etc.)

Protozoon (pl. protozoa)
  • Amoeba/amoeba: has a hard sac-like shell and is relatively large 10-20μm in size. It can cause diarrhea and liver abscesses.
  • Negri/Acanthamoeba: mainly causes meningoencephalitis, keratitis, oral infection and skin injury. They are resistant to some common chemicals (such as chlorine). It’s common in polluted water sources. But the good thing is it’s relatively large and it’s easy to filter out.
  • Cryptosporidium (3-5μm) and Giardia (8-12μm) are pathogenic single-celled protozoa that seriously endanger water quality safety. The oocysts or sporocysts have the characteristics of small size, low pathogenic dose, strong resistance to environmental selective pressure, and ease to cause the outbreak of two-worm disease. They are globally distributed and can also be filtered out.
  • Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, 0.8-1.1μm, can cause many serious infections. It is easy to filter because of its large size.
  • Escherichia coli 0.5×1.0-3.0μm, Klebsiella 0.5-0.8× 1-2.0μm, in the polluted water, easy to filter.
  • Aspergillus flavus 2-10μm, mainly causing Aspergillosis of the lung and sometimes also causing infections of the cornea, ear, and nasal and ocular frames. Thankfully, they’re not small in bacteria, and they’re relatively easy to filter out.

These include hepatitis A virus, rotavirus and norovirus. Viruses are much smaller than protozoa and bacteria, making them difficult to filter out

The interception efficiency of microorganisms under the microscope after passing the experimental test

As for the experimental data, video presentation is the most intuitive and easy to understand(The retention of microbial pathogens on the membrane after filtration).But I’m too lazy and stupid to cut it yet.


flow rate

E.coli challenge




flow rate











































































flow rate

Turbidity Removal




flow rate











































Filter the following volume of water without leakage of bacteria as measured by E. coli interception.

Tap water > 60000000L

Cleaner river water > 1000000L

Cleaner lake water > 600000L

Dirty river water > 8000L

The dirtier lake water is > 5000L


What Do Straw Water Filter Bottle Else Can Filter.

  • Can filter: silicon, colloid, particles, algae, heat source body.
  • Can reduce: TOC, pigment.
  • Do not remove: salt, gasoline, sugar, alcohol.

How to Delay Lifespan

How often to change water filter

How to use it

  • The water filter replacement is processed by a variety of materials. The most important filter layer is the hollow fiber filter membrane, and the filtration accuracy is determined by the pore size. Therefore, when the water filter replacement is used for the first time, it is in a dry state and needs to be wetted before use.
  • The filter element adopts a 0.1μm high precision ultrafiltration membrane. Reduce filtration of water that appears to be particularly turbid. Avoid easy-to-cause filter plugs, and prolong the service life.
  • After use, reverse water is produced from the outlet 2-3 times, the straw is backwashed, and the remaining water inside the straw is gently thrown out, and then placed in a cool place for preservation.

Why it needs to be replaced

  • The replacement frequency of filter elements mainly depends on the water quality, frequency of use, and maintenance mode. Basic use of 6 months and 1500 liters of water filtration volume.
  • In “Why Hollow Fiber Filter Membrane”, it is detailed that the current membrane filtration technology mainly adopts cross-flow filtration and DC filtration (terminal filtration). However, no matter which filtration process is used, the dirt trapped by the filter membrane will eventually accumulate on the membrane surface. With the use of frequency and the passage of time, the accumulation of more and more. Resulting in increased filtration resistance, decreased water production, and pressure rise, so cleaning is very important.

What are the current cleaning methods and advantages and disadvantages

How to clean water filter

Cleaning method of membrane:

  • Conventional well-flushing
  • Backwashing
  • Gas washing
  • Chemical cleaning

Due to the long-term operation process of ultrafiltration membrane, pretreatment and maintenance backwashing can only solve the problem of membrane contamination rate. But cannot solve the pollution problem fundamentally. Due to the long-term operation process of ultrafiltration membrane, pretreatment and maintenance backwashing can only solve the problem of membrane contamination rate. But cannot solve the pollution problem fundamentally. Even if the pretreatment is done very well, the small number of impurities in the water gradually accumulate and the separation performance of the membrane is gradually affected.

How does backwash work

  • The expansion of the inverted wedge-shaped membrane hole under backwashing pressure is conducive to the washing out of the dirt and blockage. The higher the backwash flow rate, the better the cleaning effect of the membrane assembly.
  • But also can’t blindly enlarge. Too much water pressure will cause the hollow fiber membrane to break. Therefore, the backwash flow is controlled by the backwash water pressure, and the backwash water permeability rate is 100-150L /m·h (but in daily life, it is difficult to accurately value the water pressure, so the daily water pressure can also be).
  • Backwash FREQUENCY: Although the frequency of washing depends on the amount and TYPE OF IMPURITIES IN the water, WAKI USES FREQUENT WASHING techniques.

Cleaning and sterilizing agents do not cause damage to the membrane and component materials. Some friends use a variety of cleaning agents, but it is worth noting that:

  • Outdoor water treatment products, such as filter straws or water purifier bottle, enter the body directly or come into contact with the body. Try to avoid contact with chemical cleaning agents.
  • Rinse the previous cleaning agent out of the system with pure water before using another cleaning agent.
  • After backwashing in pure water each time, it can be washed or soaked with 75% alcohol and stored in dry air to extend the service life.
how often to change water filter

Why Do We Need Filtered Water Bottles

Access to clean drinking water is crucial for long-distance outdoor hikers. For example, hikers have limited access to outdoor water due to altitude, location, climate, and other factors. However, outdoor water sources will inevitably be contaminated by animals, microorganisms, dust, etc., and direct drinking will expose themselves to drinking water sanitation risks with very serious consequences.

Environmental Protection

The environmental impact of plastics

Many expert comments and data show that plastic is very serious to water pollution, resulting in the butterfly effect being very terrible. According to a 2010 report, 83% of the world’s tap water contains plastic fibers, and more than 93 million Americans are exposed to unsafe drinking water. The water contains industrial pollutants, excessive chemical fertilizers, and so on.


We can’t imagine the 23 to 37 million tons of plastic waste added to the sparkling ocean every year(85% of Marine debris is plastic). That’s 50 kilograms of plastic for every meter of coastline around the world. lots of marine species are facing extinction. Today I saw the IUCN officially declare the Yangtze River paddlefish extinct.


Not only that, but many Marine species simply cannot distinguish between food and plastic that could harm or kill them. Some pellets can also be mistaken for food by fish. Plastic mixed with algae can cause animals that eat algae to mix them.


It’s up to us to protect the environment by reducing the amount of plastic we use, such as disposable bottled water.

purified water jugs,Get rid of 3,000 plastic bottles

How many times can the water bottle filter element be used.

  • Waki 1 pack filtered water bottles can provide 396 (gallons) about 1500 liters of water, at a price of $23.99 , can use 6 months.
  • Currently, the most convenient bottled water available is a 250ml bottle that costs $1.
  • So using one water filter straw is equivalent to eliminating 3,000 disposable plastic bottles and saving $2,600.

Safety and the best water filter bottle for travel

Apart from the effectiveness of the filtration, I’ve always wondered why the water filter bottle is made of plastic instead of glass or stainless steel.


The filter water bottle and the plastic water cup are both plastics, but this plastic is not that plastic(Just like the difference between glass and tempered glass).In addition to BPA-free food grade, Most important: it can be carried on a plane. It won’t happen when pressure causes water to shoot out of the filter and wet your clothes in the air. And with leak-proof design(Because the filter element is straight and hard, there is no flexibility, when the water at the bottom of the bottle is relatively shallow, many bottles will leak when the bottle is tilted).


When we travel to some countries, the local drinking water is very worrying. Such as India(The Ganges, as you know it, is the mother river and a major source of drinking water, as well as a waste discharge area).Of course there are many rivers that are worse than those in many parts of India.


You might say that drinking water is a problem only in developing countries, but that would be wrong. According to a 2021 United Nations survey, “About 2.2 billion people around the world lack access to safe drinking water for a long time, accounting for one-third of the population; Nearly 4.2 billion people — more than half the world’s population — do not have access to safe sanitation”.

The Ganges river in India

Is it cheaper to buy bottled water or filter

Outdoor activities

We can filter water directly from natural sources such as lakes, rivers, and pools into clean and safe drinking water. Waki water filter bottles with a backwash design, easy to wash and keep, can be recycled. Allows most long-distance backcountry travelers to carry less water, effectively reducing the weight of backpacks, Wonderful value for money.=

Sports or daily

Waki filter water bottles are not only suitable for outdoor activities but also for everyday use.For example, when you don’t need to filter, take out the filter element and use it as an ordinary water cup.And it comes with a leak-proof setting (which is normal, but useful).

What is the Difference Between a Water Filtration Bottle and a Purification Water Bottle?

We often refer to water filtration bottles and purification water bottles broadly as “water filters”. But there’s a very big difference between a water filter and a water purifier: Essentially one filters bacteria and one kills bacteria;


The filtration system removes protozoa and bacteria by filtration. Most physically “filter” pathogens using a variety of mechanical methods, such as hollow fiber membranes.


Water purification systems kill protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Water purification can be achieved through advanced physical methods such as ion exchange and charcoal filtration, advanced hollow fibers, ultraviolet light, and chemical means.

What is the Best Filter Water Bottle?

People often say: “There is no best, only better” so how to buy a good outdoor water filter?

What water filter bottle do i need

Source of water:In remote areas where the likelihood of human contamination is very low, we usually just use water filter straw.


Be easy to use:If the filter water bottle is difficult to use, the number of times you filter will be reduced, which will reduce water consumption and increase the risk of dehydration. For us, it is easiest to use a filter that is fast or does not require too much setup.


Filtration rate:We don’t want to spend too much time on filtering water, so filtration speed will be an important factor.


Weight:Weight has always been a concern for backpackers. Too much weight increases our load and makes it difficult to carry.


Lifespan: outdoor water filter have a service life, especially pay attention to the use of the filter element when buying. It is best to buy more than 1 filter element reserve.


Interface Compatibility:Some outdoor water filters are compatible with bottles, bags, and individual use. Therefore, when purchasing bags, bottles and other accessories, choose to be compatible with filters.


Maintaining:Many water straw filters do not support backwashing only backblowing.

Public praise

The voice of the masses often has a certain reference value. Therefore, we can learn about the user experience of the product in many ways when purchasing.


The most common method: check the reviews on the official website or shopping website of the product, and learn about the use of the product and the service attitude of the merchants from the reviews(It’s a very effective way to avoid mistakes, and I do it a lot)

Production and R&D capacity

In many cases, we believe that the quality of production in large factories is better than that in small factories. Well, that’s not quite right. For example, the core of outdoor water filtration products is the filter element, so the filtration membrane material and process are the most important. We just need to determine what is the core technology of the product manufacturer’s factory(e.g. Waki’s core technology filters membrane production).

After-sale follow up

In addition to the conventional product warranty and return and exchange policy, the most important is the service response. It is also important that the merchant can solve the problem or provide a solution in a quick and timely manner. Because it affects our mood.

Tripartite evaluation data

In addition to the above points, we can also view the third-party testing data, testing units, and evaluation reports of the product on the platform through the network.



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